Speech Therapy

Treatment in the context of speech – language disorders does not mean medical treatment. It refers to rehabilitation, teaching, counseling or behavior modification.

Clinic with its experienced speech language pathologists, offers treatment for a variety of speech & language disorders. Highlights of the treatment are:

  • Treatment on systematic and scientific lines
  • Customized treatment to suit patients’ specific needs
  • Involvement of significant others in the treatment process
  • Use of state of art equipment. Regular monitoring to assess efficacy of treatment
  • Assistance with academic and vocational placement

Treatment services are available for:

Speech dysfluencies: Aims to modify rate of speech, regulate breathing and reduce muscle tension. Over the last few decades, the Institute has successfully treated a large number of Persons With Stuttering (PWS)

Articulation & Phonological Disorders: Aims at improving intelligibility of individuals’ speech. Institute has software programs for providing therapy for these disorders

  • Voice: Aims to reach the patients’ optimal pitch, loudness and quality
  • Language therapy: Aims to rehabilitate individuals with language impairments (such as, Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Aphasia, Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), etc.), by adopting a multi-modal stimulation approach (i.e., auditory, visual, tactile)

Speech & Language problems in Kids

Speech & Language – Early Milestones Chart

Birth to 3 monthsCries immediately after birth
Cries as a reflex reaction to his / her needs
Differentiation of cries (different cries for hunger, discomfort etc.) in the latter half of this period
3-6 monthsGrunts, gurgles and makes cooing sounds when comfortable
Produces some vowels and consonants
6-9 monthsProduces strings of sounds such as ‘Baba’, ‘Dada’
Participates in routine plays such as ‘Pat-a-cake’
9-12 monthsComprehends simple commands like “give it to daddy” and questions such as “Where is so and so” (referring to a sibling or a frequent visitor)
Points to some body parts
1-2 yearA child normally says his first word around one year of age
Uses speech like pattern interspersed with true words
Has a vocabulary of 50 -100 words
Uses two word phrases in the later stages of this period


Delay in onset of Speech and Language

A child who has not said his / her first meaningful word by the age of 18 months is delayed in speech and language acquisition. Some children may have said their first words by 18 months but subsequently the development may not have kept pace. Language delay is also associated with hearing impairment, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, autism etc. See FAQ for more information.

Sometimes a child who has shown normal speech / language development may regress. Such a situation also warrants immediate attention of a speech language pathologist.

Stuttering / Stammering

Dysfluencies in speech are usually noticeable in most children after the second birthday. But, when word repetition (car, car, car gone) sound prolongation (ca…..r) syllable repetitions (ca..ca..ca….r) and pauses make the child unable to convey what he wants, or if the child / parent are worried about the disfluencies, then it is necessary to consult a speech language pathologist. Treatment is best initiated at the earliest. See FAQ for more information on stuttering.


Different speech sounds are acquired at different stages of a child’s speech development. Sounds such as /pa/, /tha/ are acquired earlier and sounds such as /sa/, /ra/ and /sk/ (as in school), /tr/ (as in tree) are acquired later. In some children only one or two sounds may be mispronounced whereas in others so many sounds may be mispronounced that the child’s speech may be unintelligible. Even at 4 years of age if your child’s speech is not easily understood by a stranger then it is best to get professional help. See FAQ for more information on Misarticulation.

Developmental Dyspraxia

These children have difficulty producing speech on command (i.e., requiring conscious effort), and find it easier to produce frequently used utterances (i.e., “hi”, “hello”, “bye”). Excessive effort is used to produce the simplest of sounds.

Speech Problems of children with repaired cleft lip and palate:

These children have nasal voice and misarticulation of speech sounds. Early intervention will help improve the quality of their speech.

Voice problems

Voice problems include complete absence of voice (aphonia), hoarseness, harshness, breathiness, high/low pitched voice, etc. Children who scream and talk excessively are prone to voice problems. See FAQ for more information on Voice problems.

Speech and Language problems of children with L.D

Children who lag behind in academics despite normal intelligence may be having learning disabilities. Some of them may have additional speech / language problems also. These children benefit from remedial programs.

Speech & Language problems in Adults are:

  • Stuttering / Stammering
  • Voice Problems
  • Aphasia
  • Dysarthria
  • Dementia

Stuttering / Stammering

Stuttering is a developmental disorder with onset in early childhood. An adult who has not overcome his stuttering may continue to stutter in adulthood.

Occasionally, stuttering may also occur in an adult consequent to psychological stress or neurological insult.

Voice Problems

Refer to voice problems in children. Adults may exhibit similar voice problems as those seen in children. However certain voice problems are exclusive to adults. These include Puberphonia and Laryngectomy.

High-pitched voice in men, especially in young adults, is called Puberphonia. This condition can be altered by voice therapy, usually with dramatic improvement. Other voice problems can also be treated successfully.

Laryngectomy is a surgical procedure where a patient’s voice-box has been removed due to cancer and as a result, the patient is rendered avocal.

People who use their voice professionally (Singers, Teachers, Politicians) are prone to voice problems. With good vocal hygiene these problems can be prevented or minimized.


Aphasia is a loss or impairment in language consequent to stroke, head injury or other neurological causes.


Dysarthria is impairment of speech due to neurological causes. One or more aspects of speech such as articulation, voice, resonance, prosody, may be affected. Dysarthria may be seen in the following conditions, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, etc.


Dementia is impairment of cognitive functions including language, found in some elderly individuals. This condition is associated with pathological changes in the brain.