Speech and Language problems of children with L.D Children who lag behind in academics despite normal intelligence may be having learning disabilities. Some of them may have additional speech / language problems also. These children benefit from remedial programs.
Speech & Language problems in Adults are:
- Stuttering / Stammering: Stuttering is a developmental disorder with onset in early childhood. An adult who has not overcome his stuttering may continue to stutter in adulthood. Occasionally, stuttering may also occur in an adult consequent to psychological stress or neurological insult.
- Voice Problems: Refer to voice problems in children. Adults may exhibit similar voice problems as those seen in children. However certain voice problems are exclusive to adults. These include Puberphonia and Laryngectomy. High-pitched voice in men, especially in young adults, is called Puberphonia. This condition can be altered by voice therapy, usually with dramatic improvement. Other voice problems can also be treated successfully. Laryngectomy is a surgical procedure where a patient’s voice-box has been removed due to cancer and as a result, the patient is rendered avocal. People who use their voice professionally (Singers, Teachers, Politicians) are prone to voice problems. With good vocal hygiene these problems can be prevented or minimized.
- Aphasia: Aphasia is a loss or impairment in language consequent to stroke, head injury or other neurological causes.
- Dysarthria: Dysarthria is impairment of speech due to neurological causes. One or more aspects of speech such as articulation, voice, resonance, prosody, may be affected. Dysarthria may be seen in the following conditions, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, etc.
- Dementia: Dementia is impairment of cognitive functions including language, found in some elderly individuals. This condition is associated with pathological changes in the brain.